Friday, August 31, 2012

debug linux kernel with gdb

People often use gdb to debug user mode applications, which is a convenient debugging means. It's also possible to use gdb to debug linux kernel and drivers with the help of kgdb. This page is a good tutorial for how to use kgdb.

Benefits of using gdb to debug kernel

  • It helps us understanding linux internals. In linux, it's very common to see structures with a lot of function pointer members being passed around. And it's not easy to find out where and how these function pointers are actually called by reading code. By setting breakpoint on the function, we can easily find how linux call into it.
  • It saves the debugging time. If we only debug by printk, we usually have to compile and deploy linux kernel multiple times to fix a minor bug. It's more efficient to debug if we can step through the code and see all variables' value in real time.


As the precedent document illustrates, to enable kgdb for a kernel, we need to:
  • Enable kernel config options for kgdb
  • Provide a polling tty driver for the kgdboc I/O driver.
  • Set linux boot argument to instruct linux kernel use our kgdb I/O driver

How to complete a kgdb I/O driver

Linux contains a kgdb I/O driver, kgdboc, short for kgdb over console. It's acutally a thin driver that relies on low level hardware driver supporting polling operation. This low level driver must be implemented by us.
To complete the polling driver, we need to implement poll_get_char and poll_put_char callbacks in the UART driver. There is a good example for us to follow in linux source code: 8250.c.

How to debug if there is only one serial port

kgdboc is designed to work when there is only one serial port on our board. The serial port can be used as primary console as well as the communication channel with gdb. In this case, we should first connect our serial port client (e.g., kermit) to the console and input 'echo g > /proc/sysrq-trigger' command to break into linux kernel. Now linux should halt and wait for a gdb client to connect. Then we exit the serial port client process and start a gdb client to connect to the linux on the same serial port. It's time-division multiplexing on the serial port.
The agent-proxy make the process even easier. agent-proxy is a tty to tcp connection mux that allow us connect more than one client application to a tty. By using it, we can run the serial port client and gdb process simultaneously. aa

How to debug linux initialization code

If we specify kgdbwait parameter in kernel boot args, the kernel will halt automatically during the initialization process and wait for a gdb client to connect. There are several things to note:
  • The kgdb core tries to break the execution as soon as a kgdb io driver is registered, which is done while the kgdboc module is initialized. As a result, it's necessary to set kgdboc module as built-in, rather than a module.
  • Our UART driver must be initialized before the kgdboc driver. Or the kgdboc driver will fail to initialize. Becuase there isn't a reliable way to specify loading order for built-in modules at the same level, it's better to specify our UART driver at a precedent level than kgdboc, for instance, fs_initcall.
  • The module initialization is called through this call stack: start_kernel -> rest_init -> kernel_init -> do_basic_setup -> do_initcalls. So, we can't debug code earlier than do_initcalls.

How to debug loadable module

When we need to debug a loadable module, we should add the ko file with symbol information to gdb with add-symbol-file command. We must provide the module's load address explicitly. How can we find out where the module is loaded? After we've insmod the module, we can find out the load address of the module by either read the /proc/modules pseudo file or use info shared command in gdb. But what if we need to debug the module_init function? It will be too late to set breakpoint after we've alreay loaded the module to find out its load address. We can solve this dilemma by setting a breakpoint in sys_init_module after the load_module function returns. And we can find out the module's load address with p mod->module_core command in gdb. We can add symbol file at this point and set a breakpoint in the actual module_init function. Or we can set a breakpoint in do_one_initcall.